Matter and Periodic Table
Editor: Julia McNamara

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GLOSSARY
Alkali Metal: Any metal in Group 1A of the periodic table
Alkaline Earth Metal: Any metal in Group 2A of the periodic table.
Anion: Any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge.
Atomic Radius: A term used to describe the size of the atom.
Cations: Any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge.
Chemical Change- A change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter.
Chemical Property: The ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
Chemical Reaction: A change in which one or more reactants change into one or more products; characterized by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in
products.
Chemical Symbol: The 1 or 2 letters that stands for a specific element. In most cases, the first letter (ex. H=Hydrogen), the first letter and the second heard letter (ex. Co=Cobalt),
or the significant letters to the element's name usually in Latin or Greek (ex. Silver=Ag because the latin term is Argentum).
Compound: a pure substance composed of two or more elements whose composition is constant.
Distillation: is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and
not a chemical reaction.
Electronegativity: The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.
Element: An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by chemical methods. In that light, an element is the simplest kind of matter.
Extensive Property: A property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample. Examples: Mass and Volume
Filtration: A process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
Gas: A form of matter that takes the shape and volume of its container; has no definite shape or volume.
Group: A vertical column in the periodic table. There are 18 of them. Elements in a group have configurations that are alike in terms of the outermost electron shells of their atoms.
Halogens: A nonmetal in Group 7A of the periodic table.
Heterogeneous: Visibly consisting of different components.
Homogeneous: A mixture that is uniform in composition; components are evenly distributed and not easily distinguished.
Inner Transition Metal: An element in the lanthanide or actinide series; the highest occupied s sublevel and nearby f sublevel of its atoms generally contain electrons; also called inner transition element
Intensive Property: A property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter in the sample.
Ionization Energy: an atom or molecule is the minimum energy required to remove (to infinity) an electron from the atom or molecule isolated in free space and in its ground electronic state.
Ions: an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation (positive ion), which is created by electron loss and is attracted to the cathode in electrolysis, or as an anion (negative ion), which is created by an electron gain and is attracted to the anode. The valence of an ion is equal to the number of electrons lost or gained and is indicated by a plus sign for cations and a minus sign for anions, thus: Na + , Cl−, Ca ++ , S = .
Law of Conservation: In any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved. Mass can not be created or destroyed.
Liquid- Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container, but, like a solid, it resists compression. Unlike a
gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density.
Mass: A measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram.
Metalloids: A Metalloid is a nonmetallic element that has some properties of a metal.
Metals: One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; they are ductile (can be drawn into wires), malleable (hammered into thin sheets without breaking), and shiny
Mixture: a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
Noble Gases: An element in Group 8A of the periodic table; the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are filled
Nonmetals: An element that tends to be a poor conductor of heat and electric current; nonmetals generally have properties opposite to those of metals.
Period: A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
Periodic Law: when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number; there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
Phase: a physically distinctive form of matter, such as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. A phase of matter is characterized by having relatively uniform chemical and physical properties. Phases are
different from states of matter. The states of matter (e.g., liquid, solid, gas) are phases, but matter can exist in different phases yet the same state of matter. For example, mixtures can
exist in multiple phases, such as an oil phase and an aqueous phase.
Physical Change: a change during which some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material doesn't change
Physical Property: A quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition.
Precipitate: A solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture.
Product: A substance produced in a chemical reaction.
Reactant: A reactant is present at the start of a chemical reaction. They appear on the left side of a chemical reaction, and they are the elements and compounds that react to form
new compounds in a chemical reaction.
Representative Elements: An element in an "A" group in the periodic table; as a group these elements display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. In their atoms, the "s" and "p" sub levels in the highest occupied energy level are partially filled.
Solid: A form of matter that has definite shape and volume. Particles in a solid are tightly packed together and solids expand slightly when heated. Solids also are incompressible (can't decrease its volume).
Solution: A homogeneous mixture made of two or more substances and where a solute is dissolved in another substance, called the solvent.
Substance: Matter that has a uniform and definite composition. Called either an element, a compound, or a pure substance.
Transition Metals: One of the Group B elements in which the highest occupied s sub level and a nearby d sub level generally contain electrons.
Vapor: is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical point
Volume: the amount of space, measured in cubic units, that an object or substance occupies; a mass or quantity




Team 1



Co Editor: Kelsey Sullivan

Group: Colleen Fitzgerald, Shannon Degnan, Abby John, Lindsey Bedrosian, Hannah Valley, David O' Brien

Properties of Matter

By: Colleen Fitzgerald

Describing Matter
  • Extensive property-property that depends on the amount of matter in a substance (Ex. volume or mass)
  • Intensive property depends on the type of matter in a sample.
Identifying Substances
  • Substance- matter with a uniform and definite composition
  • Has identical intensive and extensive properties
  • Ex. Gold and copper have the same properties in common but are different in terms of how they conduct heat, how hard they are, what color they are, and how malleable they are)
Physical Property
  • A quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition
  • Ex. Melting point, boiling point, state, and color
States of Matter
  • There are three forms of matter:
  • Solid- definite shape and volume, not easily compressed
  • Liquid-indefinite shape but definite volume, not eaisly compressed, takes the shape of the container in which its placed
  • Gas- indefinite shape and volume, take the shape and volume of its container, and is not easily compressed
  • Gases and vapors- A gas is a gas at room tempurature but a vapor is usally a liquid or solid at room tempuratureexternal image solid-liquid-gas.gif
Physical Changes
  • Porperties of the material change but not its composition
  • Ex. boiling, melting, freezing, and condensation
  • Can either be reversible or irreversible
  • Reversible- change from one state to another (Ex. cooling a liquid to become a soild again)
  • Irreversible- you can't get back the original state of the substance( Ex.cutting hair or cracking an egg)



Mixtures

By: Shannon Degnan and Abigail John
Mixture
  • A physical blend of two or more components is a mixture
  • Most samples of matter are mixtures
  • Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogeneous
Heterogenous mixtures
  • A mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout
Homegenous mixtures
  • A mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
  • Another name for a homogenous mixture is a solution
  • The term phase describes any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties

external image 1016803_f260.jpgHeterogeneous mixture external image calzoncelli10.jpgHomogeneous mixture
Separating Mixtures
  • To separate olive oil and vinegar, for example, you could just pour off the layer of oil
  • You could also cool a mixture
Filtration
  • The process that separates a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture is called filtration
Distillation
  • Tap water is a homogeneous mixture of water and other substances that dissolved in water
  • One way to separate the other components is through distillation
  • During distillation, a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed to a liquid



Section 2.3: Elements and Compounds

By: Lindsey Bedrosian and Hannah Valley

Symbols and Formulas(Hannah Valley)


  • Chemists use chemical symbols to represent elements, and chemical formulas to represent compounds
  • Many symbols used today are elements based on a system developed by Swedish Chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius
  • He based the symbols on the Latin names for the elements
  • Each element is represented by a one- or two-lettered chemical symbol
  • First letter is always capitalized, second is not
  • Chemical symbols provide a short-hand way to write the chemical formulas of compounds
  • Ex: the chemical symbols for hydrogen, oxygen and carbon are H, O and C. the formula for water is H(2)O. The formula for table sugar is C12-H22-O11.
  • Subscripts ( like the 2 in H2-O) are used to indicate the relative proportion of the elements in the compound
  • Ex: the subscript 2 in H2-O mean that there are always two parts of Hydrogen for each part of Oxygen in water.
  • Because an element always has a fixed composition, the formula for a compound is always the same


Dalton's symbols for some elements.
Dalton's symbols for some elements.
Distinguishing Elements and Compounds(Lindsey Bedrosian)
I. Element vs. Compound
A. Element
1. The simplest form of matter that had a unique set of propertiesexternal image scet_01_img0077.jpg
a. Ex.- Oxygen and hydrogen
B. Compound
1. A substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion
a. Ex- Sucrose
C. Compounds can be broken down, elements cannot
II. Breaking Down Compounds
A. Chemical Change
1. A change that produces matter with a different composition then the original matter
a. Ex. Heating is a process to breakdown compounds
III. Properties of Compounds
A. Compounds have very different properties than their elements
IV. Distinguishing Substances and Mixtures
A. If the composition of a material is fixed, the material is a substance
B. If the composition of a material may vary, the material is a mixture

Chemical Reactions

by: David O'Brien
2.4 Chemical Reactions
p. 53-56

Chemical Changes

  • The ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change is called a chemical property
    ex.)Iron + Oxygen = Rust (the ability to rust is a chemical property of iron)
  • Chemical properties can only be seen when a chemical reaction occurs
  • During a physical change the makeup of matter never changes
  • During a chemical change the makeup of matter always changes
  • Chemical Change = Chemical Reaction
  • Chemical Reaction: one or more substances change into a new substance
  • Reactant = substance present at beginning of chemical reaction
  • Product = the new substance created through the reaction
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Recognizing Chemical Changes

  • Four clues to recognize a chemical change
    1: change in energy
    2: change in color
    3: production of a gas
    4: creation of a precipitate
  • Precipitate = a solid that settles and forms out of a liquid mixture
    Conservation Of Mass
  • Law of Conservation of Mass = mass stays consistent throughout both physical and chemical changes
  • Mass is neither created or destroyed during these changes




Team 2

Co Editor: Erika Paiva

Group: Erika Paiva,Marybeth Nametz, Emily Taylor, Kim Kogot, Lauren Altmeyer, Mark Cuddy



Searching For an Organizing Principle

By: Erika Paiva pg. 155
- Since the 1700's, only thirteen elements have been identified.
- Chemists had suspected that there were more elements to be discovered and they even assigned names to the elements, but they couldn't isolate the elements from their compounds.
- During 1765-1775 Chemists discovered five new elements ( the three colorless gases were: hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.)
- The Scientific Method was a great way to search and discover new elements.
- Still, it was so hard for the Chemists to know if they discovered all the elements.
-Chemists came up with a logical and practical way to organize the elements.
- J. W. Dobereiner - was a German chemists who in 1829 published a classification system. He grouped the elements in sets of three elements which all had similar properties, known as a triad.
- One element in each triad had properties whith values that were extremely simialr to the other two elements.
- The triad also had similar chemical properties. ( elements were grouped according to similar properties.)
- Now, chemists know that all the elements can not be grouped into triads.
- Another chemist was extremely dedicated to figuring out a way to arrange all of the elements, this man was known as Dmitri Mendeleev.
external image doeber.jpg external image triads.gif

Mendeleev's Periodic Table

By: Marybeth Nametz pg. 156

external image 88955.jpgDmitri Mendeleev
Who was Dmitri Mendeleev?
  • Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and teacher who in 1869 published a table of the elements*.
  • His table of elements was later developed ito the modern periodic table
*Later that year, German chemist Lothar Meyer published a table of elements that was almost identical to Mendeleev's however Dmitri Mendeleev received more credit because he was the first to publish his table and his was more understandable.

How did Mendeleev develop and organize his table of elements?
  • Mendeleev first developed his table w hile he was trying to find a way to show the relationships among 60 elements for his students
  • He had written the properties of each different element on seperate note cards
  • Mendeleev moved each card around into a periodic table
  • Elements in a periodic table are arranged into groups that are based on a set of repeating properties
Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass
external image mendeleev.jpgEarly Image of Mendeleev's Periodic Table
Other accomplishments of Mendeleev and his table of elements?
  • On one of his earliest versions of the periodic table, Mendeleev left two spaces between zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As)
  • Left these spaces because he knew that bromine belonged with chlorine and iodine
  • Mendeleev correctly predicted that additional elements would be discovered and would fill those spaces and closely predicted the properties of those elements based on their locations in the table of elements
  • These elements between zinc and arsenic were gallium and germanium (discovered in 1875 and 1886)
  • The closeness of Mendeleev's prediction of properties and actual properties of the elements helped scientists to conclude that Mendeleev's periodic table was a powerful tool

Periodic Law

By: Emily Taylor pg. 157
  • Mendeleev developed his periodic table before scientists knew about the structure of atoms.
  • He didn't know that each atom of each element had a different number of protons, which is the atomic number.
  • 1913 - Henry Moseley (British) found an atomic number for each known element.
  • In the modern periodic table that we use today, elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic number.
  • There are seven rows, or periods, in the periodic table which correspond to a principal energy level.
  • There are more elements in higher numbered periods because there are more orbitals(regions of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron) in higher energy levels.
  • Elements in the same column, or group, have similar properties which change as you go from left to right across each group of the period table.
  • The pattern of properties within a period(row) repeats as you move across the table, left to right.
  • This pattern created the periodic law which says: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
Periodic Table Periodic Images
Periodic Table Periodic Images


Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids

By: Kim Kogot pg. 158-160

Metals:
metals.jpg
-About 80% of elements on the periodic table are metals.
-Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
-Characteristics of metals include a lust or sheen (shiny surface), ductile (can be bent into wires) and malleable (can be hammered into thing sheets without breaking).
-All metals are solids at room temperature except for Mercury.

Nonmetals:
nonmetals.jpg
-Most are gases at room temperature (noble gases), a few are solids (sulfur and phosphorus). Only one element, bromine, is a liquid at room temperature.
-Their properties are opposite that of metals; poor conductors of heat and electricity (carbon being the only excpetion), and solids are mostly brittle.

Metalloids:
metalloid.jpg
-Have some properties similar to a metal and/or nonmetal.
-Metal or nonmetal behavior depends on environment and conditions.
-Example: Silicon is a poor conductor of electricity unless it is mixed with boron.



Squares in Periodic Table

By: Alex Fischbach pg. 161

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Squares in the Periodic Table
- Periodic table – Symbols and names of elements. Classes&Groups
è Structure of their atoms
è Center – Symbol
è Underneath symbol - name and atomic mass
è Electrons in each energy level – vertical column near the atomic number
è Atomic number – Underneath the element’s name. Elements are written in order of the increasing atomic number [ex. Hydrogen’s atomic # is 1, there for it is first]
- Atom size decreases as you move from left to right across the table and increases as you move down a column
- Period = the period number of an element shows the highest unexcited energy level for an electron in that element.
- Group = are elements have the same outer electron arrangement
- Black symbol = solid at room temperature
- Red = Gas
- Blue = Liquids at room temperature
- Green = not found in nature
- Periodic trends
è Atomic size, ions, ionization energy, electric size, and electronegativity.
- Background colors
è Distinguish groups
- Nonmetals = unique names
Ex: Halogens
- 2 Groups:
O Alkali Metals
O Alkaline Earth Metals
O Other Metals
O Metalloids
O Nonmetals
O Noble Gases
[Representative Elements]
O Transition Metals
O Inner transition metals
[Transition Elements]



Electron Configuration

By: Lauren Altmeyer pg.164
-Electrons play a key role in determining the properties of element
-Elements can be sorted into: 1) Noble Gases
2) Representative Elements
3) Transition Metals
4) Inner Transition Metals
Noble Gases
-The elements in group 8A of the periodic table
noble_gases.gif

-The first 4 noble gases are:
  • Helium (He)
  • Neon (Ne)
  • Argon (Ar)
  • Krypton (Kr)
Representative Elements
-Shows the portion of the periodic table containing Groups 1A-7A
-Elements in these groups are often referred to as representative elements because the display a wide range of physical and chemical properties
-Most are solids, a few are gases, and one (Bromine) is a liquid
-For any representative element, its group number=the number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level

representative_elemnts.jpg

Transition Elements

By: Mark Cuddy pg. 166

Quick Facts: Transition Metals are...
- B Group elements that provide a connection between the elements on either side of the Periodic Table (PT)
- 2 Types: Transition and Inner Transition, classified by there electron configurations
Examples of TM's: Gold, Copper, Silver, Iron

TRANSITION METALS
  • Displayed in main body of PT
  • In the atoms, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons
  • Characterized by electrons in d orbitals
INNER TRANSITION METALS
  • Displayed below main body of PT
  • In the atoms, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons
  • Characterized by f orbitals that contain electrons
Blocks of Elements
Electron configurations and the position of elements in the periodic table bring about another pattern in the PT. The PT is divided into blocks that correspond to the highest occupied sublevels. TM's are in block d and ITM's in block f.

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  • Each period on the PT corresponds to a principle energy level
  • EXAMPLE: period 4 elements have 3 full energy levels plus another
  • For TM's electrons are added to are added to a d sublevel for a principle energy level that is one less than the period number
  • For ITM's the principle energy level of the f sublevel is two less.


Team 3

Co Editor: Anne O' Toole


Group: Lauren Bedard, Brendan Lynch, Erin Gareity, Anne O' Toole, Meghan Faber, Grace Rose



Trends in Atomic Size pg 170-172

By: Lauren Bedard and Brendan Lynch

  • Molecules
    • units formed when atoms of the same element are joined to one another
  • Atomic radius
    • 1/2 of the distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
    • measured in picometers
  • There is a very small distance between atoms in a molecule
  • Atomic size
    • increases: top to bottom within a group
    • decreases: left to right across a period

Group Trends in Atomic Size:

  • Atomic number increases within a group, charge on nucleus increases, number of occupied energy levels increases
  • Increase in positive charge causes electrons closer to nucleus
  • Increase in occupied orbital sheilds electrons in highest occupied energy level from attraction of protons in nucleus

Periodic Trends in Atomic Size:

  • Shielding effect is constant for all elements in a period
  • Increasing nuclear charge pulls electrons (in highest occupied energy level) to nucleus causing atomic size to decrease
Ions:
  • An ion is an atom, or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
  • An atom is electrically neutral because it has an equal number of protons and electrons.
  • Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms.
  • Atoms of metallic elements, such as sodium, tend to form ions by losing one or more electrons from their highest occupied energy levels.
  • Atoms of nonmetallic elements, such as chlorine, tend to form ions by gaining one or more electrons.
Cation:
  • A cation is an ion with a positive charge.
  • The charge for a cation is written as 1+, however the 1 is usually omitted. Ex. Na+ is equivalent to Na1+.
Anion:
  • An anion is an ion with a negative charge.
  • The charge for an anion is written as 1-, however the 1 is usually omitted. Ex. Cl- is equivalent to Cl1-.

Ionization of Energy pg 173-174

By: Erin Garrity and Anne O'Toole

By: Anne O'Toole

  • electrons can move to higher energy levels when atoms absorb energy
  • energy required to remove an electron from an atom is called ionization energy
  • ionization energy is measured when an element is in it gaseous state
  • the energy required to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy
  • the cation produced has a 1+ charge
  • the second ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 1+ charge
  • the ion produced has a 2+ charge
  • the third ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 2+ charge
  • the ion produced has a 3+ charge
  • ionization energy can help you predict what ions elements will form
  • the first ionization energy decreases from top to bottom within a group
  • the first ionization energy of representative elements tends to increase from left to right across a period

First Ionization Energy Versus Atomic Number:
external image m5f9.GIF
By: Erin Garrity
-ions are atoms or group of atom that has a positive or negative charge
-atoms are only neutral when the number of protons and electrons is the same
-the positive or negative charge is caused when electrons are either taken on or given away
- a positively charged ion is called a cation
-positive charge can be represented with a +
-a negatively charged ion is called a anion
-negative charge can be represented with a -



Electronegativity pg 175-178
By: Meghan Faber and Grayce Rose

Trends in Ionic Size


By: Grayce Rose
  • During reactions between metals and nonmetals, nonmetal atoms usually gain electrons, andmetal atomsusually loose them: this effects ions that form as a result
  • Cations are smaller than the atoms they form
  • Anions are larger than the atoms they form
  • In metals, the ion is usually larger than the atom
  • Metals usually loose their outermost layer of electrons during ionization: the ion has one less occupied energy level
  • In nonmetals, the ion is usually larger than the atom: as the number of electrons increases, the attraction of the nucleus for any one electron decreases

Trends in Ionic Size on the Periodic Table:

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Trends in Electronegativity


By: Meghan Faber
  • compounds can have two types of bonds
  • electrons are present in both types
  • Electronegativity is "the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound." It can be used to predict the bond of a compound.
  • The noble gases don't have many compounds, so they are not included.
  • The electronegativity is measured in Paulings, named after Linus Pauling who defined electronegativity.
  • Electronegativity values usually decreases from top to bottom (column), and increases left to right (period).
  • Metals:Lower electronegativity values
  • Nonmetals: high electronegativity values
  • Least electronegative: Cesium
  • Most electronegative: Fluorine

Electronegativity Values of Elements:


external image 111_Electronegativity_Table.jpg


Summary of Trends: *Trends of all different properties are explained by the atom's structure.


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